Tag Archives: perception

One of the Questions of Form

Curvilinear or straight…is it a matter of preference? Is it the stylistic will of the architect who imposes their desired form upon society? Why is it that architecture traditionally tends to be manifested in straight lines, rectilinear massing and 90 degree angles? If a curve is introduced, then it is typically an arc, circle, or sphere derived from rudimentary platonic solids. If there is an angle to disrupt the perfect 90 degree box, it is seen as a roof or derived from some quality in the site. Why are windows and doors square, walls vertical, and floor slabs horizontal? Is it a direct consequence of the construction industry, mass producing straight pieces that are later assembled into the buildings of yesterday? Is it performance based following the laws of gravity in terms of vertical loads? Is it because people need flat horizontal surfaces to exist upon? Is it because we are used to seeing buildings in straight and rectilinear arrangements which give us a sense of familiar comfort stemming from cities of the past.

Other industrial realizations of mankind are not restricted to this prescribed ruleset. Taking a look at transportation; cars and boats, are designed for performance and style, being mass produced and continually evolving. Planes and trains are designed for aerodynamics and efficiency. Small objects such as electronics and media devices are sculpted and shaped based on functional and aesthetic requirements, but not restricted to the bulk of assembly found in buildings and construction materials. Why is architecture so far behind in terms of form?

When an interesting architectural proposal is conceived with irregular curvilinear form, or a complex network of smooth surfaces and natural shapes, why is it seen by the layperson as ‘something out of a science fiction movie’? Why is there such resistance to receive architecture that escapes traditional methods of conception and representation?

Taking a look at nature and natural systems, straight lines and box-like forms are no where to be found…except at the horizon, a distant and infinitely unattainable threshold. No matter how far you travel toward the horizon, you will not reach it, until you escape the confines of the planet and see the straight line is really a curve. Does the straight line represent order and man’s dominance over nature? Does it recall the power of an industrially advanced civilization? What about a digitally advanced one? Can form-generation escape a designer’s prescribed realization? Can there be an architecture that conceives its own form? Even with advanced digital methods of generating form, there may be unforeseen outcomes, but there is still the matter of preference and decision. The manifestation is restricted to the logic and constraints of the designer’s will. Even if the object itself is not designed, the code that generates the form is. Ultimately, all formed objects are formed…by a designer. So, is it a matter of preference?…


Urban Guerrillas

“Skaters by their very nature are urban guerrillas: they make everyday use of the useless artifacts of the technological burden, and employ the handiwork of government/corporate structure in a thousand ways that the original architects could never dream of.”

– CraigStecyck, 1976

The skateboarder in the metropolis is an urban warrior of a different kind. The perception of the city that comes from this user group is loaded with a specificity of seeking, combined with creativity, athleticism, and a rebellious counter culture. Public space in the city takes on new identities when viewed through the mind of a skater. The search for new ‘spots’ is endless and the ability to adapt to any environment is unrelenting. For the skater the entire city is a usable terrain. Design elements intended for sitting, landscape, changes in elevation or public safety become obstacles of opportunity for grinding, sliding and clearing that can be combined and with any array of tricks limited only by the technical skill, confidence, and will of the skater.

The stair, for example, is a very necessary and basic element of architecture. In urban design, it is historically used to represent a sense of monumental grandeur, it functionally connects areas of different elevation bringing people from one place to another, and in design it offers a scale and flexibility to the designer that can adapt to any situation. The pedestrian uses the stair for access or seating and within a public plaza can offer a place of hesitation to observe the interchange of the community. But the skateboarder sees the stair in a whole new light as a challenge to experience, an opportunity to practice, and a place to express creativity. A simple set of stairs with a good landing and runway can tempt skaters to push the boundaries of their own existence and inspire a creative act that transcends typical movements of the body through space. Add a rail, a curb or a ledge and the potential for the application and combination of tricks becomes limitless increasing the possibility of new perceptions through space. Every element in every corner of the city offers a potential arena for the sport multiplied thousands of times throughout an urban fabric.

The movement of skateboarding changes the parallax of the city. The ability to roll at speed alters the viewpoint continuously. The skater is not bound by the separation of car and pedestrian, but can roll seamlessly between street and sidewalk. The fluid and dynamic motion of skateboarding propels the body through space. The loud rumble of urethane wheels, and the distinct ‘clack’ of the ollie announces the presence of a skateboard from a distance and turns the heads of unsuspecting pedestrians. This audible presence also influences the perception of the skater causing a reaction of indifference to the surrounding social context. In this sense, the skateboarder like the architect, exists outside the constructs of society and is free to experiment and explore. But unlike the architect, the skater exists free to reinterpret the function and use of spatial sequences for their own expression and enjoyment.

Skateboarding is an individual activity expressed as an extension of self. It is a creative act that is as specific and unique as each skater’s persona and style. As an art form, it can be elegant, smooth, effortless and beautiful… yet at the same time it can be aggressive, intense, bold, and in your face. As a sport, the physical body is pushed to a level of coordination and conditioning as real as the concrete, stone and asphalt surfaces that break and bruise the body which fails to roll away after attempting a maneuver. The adrenaline of each attempt and the reward of rolling away pushes each skater to pursue the act, focus the mind and succeed. Unlike organized sport, there is no winner or loser in skateboarding, it is the process that counts, not the result. Skating is an individual sport and its style is an act of self expression, but it is fueled through the social interaction and competition driven camaraderie that a group dynamic provides. Skaters roll in packs, pushing each other through performance and praise to break new boundaries and experience the urban criteria through a new interface of exchange. This social construct becomes a representation of a new type of family unit, providing support and validation for a user group that is often seen as problematic through the eyes of a corporate, capitalist society.

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The skateboarding culture emerged during the mid 1970s in southern California as an extension of a surf culture, but quickly took on a lifestyle of it’s own. It represented an energy and urban radicalism that has classified skateboarding as an alternative to the mainstream. Within the context of the city, the skateboarder can still be regarded as a public nuisance by property owners, patrons and pedestrians being ushered away by security guards and harassed by the law. The pursuit of skateboarding and its attitude directed against the grain leaves a clear mark on the architecture of the city. The tracks of skate spots can be seen on waxed curbs, walls, ledges and rails left to be revisited at another time. Seen by some as vandals, skaters leave behind hints of the alternative uses provided by urban spaces that enrich the fabric of the urban jungle. Conditioned to appear at moments when there is the least resistance, skateboarders are urban guerrillas seeking an environment in which to practice their medium.

One of the many things that architecture and urbanism can learn from this integral user group is the flexibility and adaptability of using sequences of prescribed space. Another is the understanding of alternate perceptions through experimentation. These ideas can be utilized to create changes that may introduce completely new trajectories of architectural thinking.


Machine or Nature

During a period of industrial revolution and mechanization, there remained a thread of discourse that was interested in biological systems. Roughly 100 years ago, modernism was emerging in architecture through implementation of the then current technological innovations. New methods of mass production and new high-strength, light-weight materials were deployed to shape a modern world of tomorrow fitted with the latest conveniences for modern life. Advocates of the movement were inspired by the efficient technology of the machine. Transportation vehicles such as the airplane, automobile, and ocean liner enabled man to travel great distances, which previously took days or weeks on horseback, in a relatively short time. Production and manufacturing had achieved massive efficiency. Science had taken the place of philosophy in terms of logic and thinking. Architect’s searched for ways to build with the same functionality, creating “machines”, as Le Corbusier put it, “for living in.”

We know all too well the history of European modernism that rose from a post-war environment of necessity, and then immigrated to America to first become a symbol of capitalism, then corporate power in the skyscraper, then mutated with classicism for ‘aesthetic’ purposes, and ultimately classified into ‘styles’ referred to as ‘functionalism’, ‘minimalism’, or ‘international style’…etc. It is becoming more and more prevalent and widely used by designers who reject notions of ornamentation and classical architecture, often called ‘traditional’. These are not new ideas, in fact they are quite old, and the canon of ‘modern architecture’, using platonic solids and pure geometrical forms has replaced the renaissance as the ‘traditional’.

Just as the modernists of last century were inspired by the technology of their day, so are the architects of the 21st century. Over the past decade or two, advances in computation and software development has given new tools to designers, resulting in a proliferation of form generation with increasing geometrical complexity. Advances in the fields of robotics, genetic research, and artificial intelligence inspire architects to design and ultimately build with the sophistication of intelligent organisms. Natural systems are researched bringing a bio-mimetic generation to form-giving and architectural design. As early as 1968, computational systems such as the Lindenmayer system (after the Hungarian biologist, Aristid Lindenmayer), were developed to simulate natural growth and branching through a recursive process. Today, computational software enables architects to deploy and manipulate similar logics to building design.

Some may discard this trajectory as unimportant, reacting only to a visual impulse. Many morphological productions and explorations have been classified as ‘blobs’, and regarded to as unbuildable, digital art. The research is still relatively experimental and considered an infant, though manufacturing capabilities are rapidly being developed to realize the designs. CAM techniques using computer numeric controlled (CNC) milling, water or laser cutting is enabling the work to translate from a cyber environment into a physical one. Just as the pioneers of the modern movement made proposals for a new tomorrow, so are many of today’s architects foreseeing a possible world of intelligent cities and -literally- ‘smart growth’ for the next century. Throughout architectural history, advances in world technology as inspired thinkers to imagine other possible worlds. Inspired by the complexity of growth systems and behavioral patterns of mother nature, rather than man-made machines, the ambition of the discipline is placed beyond the existing creations of man, and after the designs of the Master Creator.



The Body in Space

If we are looking at perception, and perception is an understanding of the world…how does the physical body and its placement in reality affect perception? How does the body relate to the perception of architecture? How is architecture defined in relation to the body?

Every outcome depends on initial input…That is to say, one’s perception can only be formed by one’s experience in life. This sounds simple enough. In addition to this, architecture exists with or without the body.

Every experience that someone has throughout an entire lifetime is the sum of what they know. This includes every person they ever spoke to, or every place they ever went (real or fantasy), everything they ever read, topic they researched, discipline they studied, music they heard, food they ate…etc, you get the point. It is impossible for someone to know what they have never been exposed to in one form or another. These experiences are the initial inputs of data that shape and influence one’s life. They are stored, combined and multiplied, imagined and realized in the mind, where perception takes place.

The body is the container, the physical vehicle for the mind. It is equipped with sensory inputs for seeing, touching, hearing, tasting and smelling, continuously gathering data; adding information to the confluence of perception. It also provides mobility to take the mind to arenas of new experience and understanding. The body experiences as it moves through space allowing the mind to engage and interpret the input data. Perception is the deciphering of the data and validation of the combined experiences presented to the body and mind. Architecture then, is the space the body moves within. It is the source of the input data and can be qualified as everything outside the body. Every space the body inhabits…every sound in that space…every sight of that space…

Does this suggest that every room is architecture in relation to the body inside the room? Is every street considered architecture as the body moves within it? Are cars, trees and furniture part of the ideological sense of architecture? Are other people outside your own body considered architecture? Is the screen you are staring at right now architecture?

Or is architecture just buildings and the making of them?

Or is architecture a discipline of thinking and designing space…in relation to the body?

I think it is a matter of perception…